The course, Logic and Critical Thinking, is a high-level thought course in the discipline of philosophy. It is a philosophical inquiry that takes argumentation and reasoning as its basic objects of investigation and attempts to introduce the fundamental concepts of logic and methods of logical argumentation and reasoning and critical thinking. It includes evaluation of the methods by which we form beliefs, weigh evidence, assess hypotheses and arguments, and analyze reasoning. Logic is concerned with the study of arguments, and it seeks to establish the conditions under which an argument may be considered as acceptable or good. It includes the development of standard methods and principles of arguments. Critical thinking is an exercise, a habit, a manner of perception and reasoning that has principles of logic as its fulcrum, and dynamically involves various reasoning skills that ought to be human approach to issues and events of life. Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. In another way, critical thinking is the reasonable, reflective, responsible, and skillful thinking that focuses on deciding what to believe or do. To think critically is to examine ideas, evaluate them against what you already know and make decisions about their merit. A person who thinks critically can ask appropriate questions, gather relevant information, efficiently and creatively sort through this information, reason logically from this information, and come to reliable and trustworthy conclusions about the world that enable one to live and act successfully in it. When you think critically, you weigh up all sides of an argument and evaluate its validity, strengths and weaknesses. Thus, critical thinking skills entail actively seeking all sides of an argument: evaluating the soundness of the claims asserted and the evidence used to support the claims.

    Therefore, this course is designed to help students to develop not only the ability to construct reliable and logically defendable arguments of their own and rationally evaluate the arguments of others, but also the abilities and skills of critical thinking. All education consists of transmitting two different things to students: (1) the subject matter or discipline content of the course ("what to think"), and (2) the correct way to understand and evaluate this subject matter ("how to think"). We may do an excellent job of transmitting the content of our respective academic disciplines, but we often fail to teach students how to think effectively about this subject matter,

    By: Teklay G. (AkU), Adane T. (MU), and Zelalem M. (HMU) Page 9

    that is, how to properly understand and evaluate it. That means, we often fail to teach how to think critically. Hence, the primary aim of this course is to teach students essential skills of analyzing, evaluating, and constructing arguments, and to sharpen their ability to execute the skills in thinking and writing, and thus better prepare them to succeed in the world. The understanding of the methods by which we develop our own arguments, form beliefs, weigh evidence, assess hypotheses and arguments, and analyze reasoning will help you rationally evaluate the credibility of claims and arguments you encounter in media, in everyday conversation, and in the classroom. You will also learn to become aware of errors in reasoning and judgment, which we all occasionally commit. Finally, you will learn to develop your own arguments with clarity and precision.

    Dear learners, this module consists of six important chapters or modules1. The first chapter deals with the basic concepts of philosophy, the meaning and definition of philosophy, the core branches of philosophy, and the importance of learning philosophy. The second chapter of this module is devoted to the basic concepts of logic: the definition and components of arguments, the techniques of recognizing arguments, types of arguments, and evaluation of arguments. The third chapter deals with the relationship between logic and language. It discusses the cognitive and emotive meaning of words, the intensional and extensional meaning of terms, the types and purposes of definitions, and the intensional and extensional definitional techniques, from a philosophical point of view. The basic concepts of critical thinking, (i.e., the meaning and definition of critical thinking, the principles of critical thinking, the factors that affect critical thinking, and the standards of good arguments), is addressed in the fourth chapter. The fifth chapter discusses the various forms of logical errors in arguments, which are commonly known as ‗fallacies‘, with a special emphasis on the categories of informal fallacies. The components, attributes and representations of categorical propositions are discussed in the last chapter of the module.

    click here

    Read more
  • Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Science and Higher Education Module for Introduction to Economics


    Have you ever heard anything about Economics? Yes!!! It is obvious you heard about

    economics and even you talked a lot about economics in your day to day activities. And you

    may have questions such as: What are resources? What does efficient allocation mean? What

    are human needs? What does demand mean? What is economics? This course will answer

    those questions and introduce you to the nature of economics, demand and supply theories,

    theories of consumer, production, cost, market structure and fundamental concepts of

    macroeconomics at large.

    In this chapter you will be introduced to the subject matter of economics and the rationale that

    motivates us to study economics.

    Chapter objectives

    After successful completion of this chapter, you will be able to:

     understand the concept and nature of economics;

     analyze how resources are efficiently used in producing output;

     identify the different methods of economic analysis ;

     distinguish and appreciate the different economic systems;

     understand the basic economic problems and how they can be solved; and

     identify the different decision making units and how they interact with each other

    1.1 Definition of economics

    Economics is one of the most exciting disciplines in social sciences. The word economy comes

    from the Greek phrase ―one who manages a household‖. The science of economics in its

    current form is about two hundred years old. Adam Smith – generally known as the father of

    economics – brought out his famous book, ―An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of Wealth

    of Nations‖, in the year 1776. Though many other writers expressed important economic ideas

    before Adam Smith, economics as a distinct subject started with his book.

    There is no universally accepted definition of economics (its definition is controversial). This

    is because different economists defined economics from different perspectives:


    click here

    Read more
  • Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Science and Higher Education Module for Geography

    The course Geography of Ethiopia had been offered to all freshman students of Ethiopian Universities until 2005. However, it was interrupted with the curricula revision that ended up making the duration of study for a University degree for most disciplines to be three years. This trend continued for more than a decade and a half. In response to the changing national and global dynamism, the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (MoSHE) had conducted assessment for a curriculum revision. The assessment included gathering evidence from international experiences and domestic practices in proposing courses for the freshman program. The results of the assessment revealed that the Ethiopian education curriculum had not properly addressed national unity among graduates, critical thinking, important non-cognitive skills, employability skills, communication skills, global outlook, and digital literacy to cite few. One of the recommendations of the curriculum revision team was that the curriculum/program need to have components that highlight the necessities of Ethiopian Geography, society, cultures as well as the dynamic interrelationship of people and natural environments over time. As a result, to fill the existing gaps, common courses such as the Geography of Ethiopia and the Horn and others were identified to be offered for all first year students of higher education institutions.

    The Geography of Ethiopia and the Horn is, therefore, intended to familiarize students with the basic geographic concepts particularly in relation to Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa. It is also meant to provide students a sense of place and time (geographic literacy) that are pivotal in producing knowledgeable and competent citizens who are able to comprehend and analyze spatial problems and contribute to their solutions. To be geographically illiterate is to deny oneself not only the ability to comprehend spatial problems but also the opportunity to contribute meaningfully to the development of policies for dealing with them. As such, the course provides an opportunity for the reader to understand the implications of the location, shape and size of Ethiopia, as well as the country‟s physical and human resources diversity and abundance on its socioeconomic development.

    The course consists of four parts. The first part provides a brief description on the location, shape and size of Ethiopia as well as basic skills of reading maps. Part two introduces the physical background and natural resource endowment of Ethiopia and the Horn which includes its geology and mineral resources, topography, climate, drainage and water resources, soil, fauna and flora. The third part of the course focuses on the demographic characteristics of the


    country and its implications on economic development. The fourth component of the course offers treatment of the various economic activities of Ethiopia and the Horn which include agriculture, manufacturing and the service sectors. Moreover, Ethiopia in a globalizing world is treated in the perspectives of the pros and cons of globalization on its natural resources, population and socio-economic conditions.

    This teaching material is compiled to meet the urgent needs of freshman students of Ethiopian Universities, who take the course “Geography of Ethiopia and the Horn (GeES 1011)”. It is our fervent belief that the material


    click here

    Read more
  • Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Ministry of Science and Higher Education Module for Communicative English Language Skills I (FLEn 1011)

    Introduction to the Module

    The module for the course Communicative English Skills I (EnLa101) is intended to be given in the first semester for all first-year students joining Ethiopian universities. The module focuses on listening and reading skills and integrates these two skills with speaking and writing activities. The module is prepared to enable you, the student, to communicate in English with acceptable accuracy and fluency by using English appropriately in different contexts. The module aims to develop your English language proficiency through language learning activities designed to help you use English for your academic and social needs. The language learning activities encourage you to learn by doing things in English and by reflecting on the activities you do in each unit. Grammar and vocabulary learning activities are also included in the module.

    There are five units in this module. Unit 1 is on study skills, and the activities in this unit will encourage you to make notes from lectures and use them for revising your courses. Unit 2 is about health and fitness in which you will listen to a story about a sports star and discuss the benefits of health and fitness. Unit 3 is on cultural values and in this unit you will read about the culture of one cultural community in Ethiopia and listen to a lecture on cultural tourism. In addition, in Unit 3 you will talk about cultural values and write about cultural values that you are proud of. In Unit 4 you will listen to, read and talk about wildlife. Unit 5 deals with population and you will listen to a talk on population density, and you will read about the population of one country. In Unit 5 you will also study the collocations of ‗population‘ and the form and uses of the active and passive voices. At the end of each unit there are sections which require you to reflect on the activities you have performed and to self-assess your level of achievement of unit objectives.


    Download Communicative English Language Skills I

    Read more

Latest Articles

Most Popular